Piedmont (/ˈpiːdmɒnt/ PEED-mont; Italian: Piemonte, pronounced [pjeˈmonte]; Piedmontese, Occitan and Francoprovençal: Piemont, Piedmontese pronunciation: [pjeˈmʊŋt]) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country. It borders the Liguria region to the south, the Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna regions to the east and the Aosta Valley region to the northwest; it also borders Switzerland to the northeast and France to the west. It has an area of 25,402 km2 (9,808 sq mi) making it the second largest region of Italy after Sicily and a population of 4,322,805 as of 30 June 2020. The capital of Piedmont is Turin.
The name Piedmont comes from medieval Latin Pedemontium or Pedemontis, i.e., ad pedem montium, meaning “at the foot of the mountains” (the Alps), attested in documents from the end of the 12th century.
Piedmont is the second largest of Italy’s 20 regions, after Sicily. It is broadly coincident with the upper part of the drainage basin of the river Po, which rises from the slopes of Monviso in the west of the region and is Italy’s largest river. The Po drains the semicircle formed by the Alps and Apennines, which surround the region on three sides.
From the highest peaks, the land slopes down to hilly areas, (sometimes with a brusque transition from mountain to plain) and then to the Padan Plain. The boundary between the two is characterised by resurgent springs—typical of the Padan Plain—which supply fresh water to the rivers and a dense network of irrigation canals.